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Elijah Wood
Elijah Wood

Schiffman Consumer Behavior PDF 19: A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Marketers



Schiffman Consumer Behavior PDF 19: What is it and why should you read it?




If you are interested in learning how consumers think, feel, act, and react in the marketplace, then you should read Schiffman Consumer Behavior PDF 19. This is the latest edition of one of the most popular and comprehensive textbooks on consumer behavior. It covers all the essential topics and concepts that you need to know to understand and influence consumer behavior.




schiffman consumer behavior pdf 19



The book is written by Leon G. Schiffman and Joseph Wisenblit, two renowned experts in the field of consumer behavior. They have decades of experience in teaching, researching, consulting, and writing about consumer behavior. They have also updated the book with the latest trends and issues affecting the industry, such as new media, technological advances, ethical concerns, global perspectives, sustainability, social responsibility, diversity, and inclusion.


In this article, we will give you an overview of what Schiffman Consumer Behavior PDF 19 offers. We will explain why consumer behavior is important for marketing success. We will introduce you to the main concepts and theories of consumer behavior. We will also discuss the factors that influence consumer behavior. Finally, we will show you how to apply consumer behavior for marketing practice. We will also highlight some of the ethical issues and challenges that marketers face when dealing with consumer behavior.


By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of what consumer behavior is and how it can help you achieve your marketing goals. You will also be motivated to read Schiffman Consumer Behavior PDF 19 and learn more from the authors. So, let's get started!


The importance of consumer behavior for marketing success




Consumer behavior is the study of how individuals and groups make decisions to purchase, use, and dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences. It also examines how these decisions are influenced by various factors, such as personal, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors.


Consumer behavior is important for marketing success because it helps marketers understand and predict how consumers will respond to their marketing efforts. By knowing how consumers behave, marketers can:


  • Identify and satisfy the needs and wants of consumers



  • Create and deliver value to consumers



  • Build and maintain long-term relationships with consumers



  • Develop and implement effective marketing strategies



  • Gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace



  • Enhance the profitability and sustainability of their businesses



In other words, consumer behavior is the foundation of marketing. Without consumer behavior, marketing would be based on guesswork, intuition, or trial and error. With consumer behavior, marketing becomes more scientific, systematic, and strategic.


The main concepts and theories of consumer behavior




Consumer behavior is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that involves many concepts and theories. However, one of the most widely used frameworks to understand consumer behavior is the consumer decision-making process. This process describes the stages that consumers go through before, during, and after making a purchase. These stages are: problem recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision, and post-purchase behavior.


Problem recognition




This is the first stage of the consumer decision-making process. It occurs when consumers realize that they have a need or a want that is not satisfied by their current situation. For example, a consumer may recognize that they need a new laptop because their old one is broken or outdated.


Problem recognition can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. Internal stimuli are psychological or physiological factors that arise within the consumer. For example, a consumer may feel hungry or thirsty. External stimuli are environmental or social factors that influence the consumer. For example, a consumer may see an advertisement or a recommendation from a friend.


Problem recognition is important for marketers because it creates an opportunity to attract and influence consumers. Marketers can stimulate problem recognition by highlighting the gap between the current and desired situation of consumers. They can also create or enhance the need or want of consumers by offering new or improved products or services.


Information search




This is the second stage of the consumer decision-making process. It occurs when consumers seek and evaluate information about products or services that can satisfy their need or want. For example, a consumer may search online or offline for different brands and models of laptops.


Information search can be classified into two types: internal and external. Internal information search involves recalling information from memory based on past experiences or knowledge. External information search involves seeking information from sources outside the consumer's mind, such as friends, family, experts, reviews, ratings, advertisements, websites, social media, etc.


Information search is important for marketers because it affects how consumers perceive and compare their alternatives. Marketers can facilitate information search by providing relevant, accurate, and accessible information about their products or services. They can also influence information search by using persuasive messages, testimonials, endorsements, guarantees, etc.


Alternative evaluation




This is the third stage of the consumer decision-making process. It occurs when consumers compare and contrast different options that can satisfy their need or want. For example, a consumer may evaluate different laptops based on their features, prices, quality, design, etc.


Purchase decision




This is the fourth stage of the consumer decision-making process. It occurs when consumers choose and buy a product or service that best satisfies their need or want. For example, a consumer may decide to buy a laptop from a specific store or website.


Purchase decision can be influenced by several factors, such as availability, convenience, price, discounts, delivery, payment options, etc. Purchase decision can also be affected by the presence or absence of other people, such as salespeople, friends, family, etc.


Purchase decision is important for marketers because it determines whether they can convert potential customers into actual customers. Marketers can encourage purchase decision by offering incentives, guarantees, warranties, after-sales service, etc. They can also reduce purchase risk by providing free trials, samples, refunds, etc.


Post-purchase behavior




This is the fifth and final stage of the consumer decision-making process. It occurs when consumers use and evaluate their purchase. For example, a consumer may use their laptop for work or entertainment and rate their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with it.


Post-purchase behavior can result in two outcomes: satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Satisfaction occurs when the product or service meets or exceeds the expectations of the consumer. Dissatisfaction occurs when the product or service falls short of the expectations of the consumer.


Post-purchase behavior is important for marketers because it affects the loyalty and retention of customers. Marketers can enhance post-purchase satisfaction by providing quality products or services, delivering value, soliciting feedback, resolving complaints, etc. They can also foster post-purchase loyalty by creating positive word-of-mouth, referrals, repeat purchases, cross-selling, up-selling, etc.


The factors that influence consumer behavior




Consumer behavior is not only influenced by the consumer decision-making process but also by various factors that shape and modify the behavior of consumers. These factors can be classified into two categories: internal and external. Internal factors are those that originate within the consumer, such as motivation, personality, perception, learning, attitude, and lifestyle. External factors are those that originate outside the consumer, such as culture, subculture, social class, reference groups, family, and situational factors.


Motivation




Motivation is the driving force that activates and directs consumer behavior. It is based on the needs and wants of consumers that arise from their physiological or psychological states. For example, a consumer may be motivated to buy a laptop because they need it for work or because they want it for entertainment.


Motivation can be explained by various theories, such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzberg's two-factor theory, McClelland's theory of needs, etc. These theories suggest that consumers have different types and levels of needs that motivate them to seek satisfaction. For example, Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that consumers have five types of needs: physiological (e.g., food), safety (e.g., security), social (e.g., belonging), esteem (e.g., respect), and self-actualization (e.g., fulfillment).


Motivation is important for marketers because it helps them identify and appeal to the needs and wants of consumers. Marketers can stimulate motivation by creating awareness, arousing interest, generating desire, and prompting action.


Personality




Personality is the set of distinctive traits and characteristics that define and differentiate a person. It is based on the genetic and environmental influences that shape a person's behavior over time. For example, a consumer may have a personality that is extroverted or introverted.


Personality can be measured by various tools, such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Big Five Personality Traits (OCEAN), etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different types and dimensions of personality that influence their preferences and choices. For example, MBTI classifies consumers into 16 types based on four dimensions: extraversion/introversion (E/I), sensing/intuition (S/N), thinking/feeling (T/F), and judging/perceiving (J/P).


Personality is important for marketers because it helps them segment and target consumers based on their personality traits and characteristics. Marketers can tailor their products or services to match the personality of consumers.


Perception




Perception is the process by which consumers select, Perception




Perception is the process by which consumers select, organize, and interpret sensory information. It is based on the stimuli that consumers receive from their environment and their senses. For example, a consumer may perceive a laptop based on its appearance, sound, smell, touch, or taste.


Perception can be influenced by various factors, such as selective exposure, selective attention, selective distortion, selective retention, etc. These factors suggest that consumers have different ways of perceiving the same stimuli depending on their needs, expectations, beliefs, attitudes, etc. For example, selective exposure means that consumers tend to expose themselves to stimuli that are relevant or consistent with their needs or interests.


Perception is important for marketers because it affects how consumers form and change their impressions and opinions about products or services. Marketers can influence perception by designing and delivering stimuli that are attractive, distinctive, memorable, and meaningful to consumers.


Learning




Learning is the process by which consumers acquire and change their knowledge and behavior through experience. It is based on the outcomes that consumers receive from their actions and reactions. For example, a consumer may learn how to use a laptop by trial and error or by observing others.


Learning can be explained by various theories, such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, etc. These theories suggest that consumers have different modes and methods of learning that affect their behavior. For example, classical conditioning means that consumers learn to associate a stimulus with a response through repeated exposure. For instance, a consumer may associate a brand name with a positive feeling after seeing a pleasant advertisement.


Learning is important for marketers because it helps them shape and modify the behavior of consumers. Marketers can facilitate learning by providing feedback, reinforcement, repetition, demonstration, etc.


Attitude




Attitude is the overall evaluation and feeling that consumers have toward a product or service. It is based on the beliefs and values that consumers hold about a product or service. For example, a consumer may have a positive or negative attitude toward a laptop based on its features, benefits, drawbacks, etc.


Attitude can be measured by various tools, such as Likert scale, Attitude




Attitude is the overall evaluation and feeling that consumers have toward a product or service. It is based on the beliefs and values that consumers hold about a product or service. For example, a consumer may have a positive or negative attitude toward a laptop based on its features, benefits, drawbacks, etc.


Attitude can be measured by various tools, such as Likert scale, semantic differential scale, attitude-toward-the-object model, etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different components and dimensions of attitude that influence their behavior. For example, Likert scale measures the degree of agreement or disagreement that consumers have with a statement about a product or service.


Attitude is important for marketers because it affects how consumers respond to their products or services. Marketers can form and change attitude by providing information, persuasion, emotion, etc.


Lifestyle




Lifestyle is the pattern of activities, interests, and opinions that consumers express through their consumption behavior. It is based on the values, goals, and identity that consumers have as members of society. For example, a consumer may have a lifestyle that is adventurous or conservative.


Lifestyle can be analyzed by various tools, such as AIO (activities, interests, opinions), VALS (values and lifestyles), PRIZM (potential ratings index by zip market), etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different types and segments of lifestyle that influence their behavior. For example, VALS classifies consumers into eight types based on their primary motivation (ideals, achievement, self-expression) and resources (innovators, thinkers, achievers, experiencers, believers, strivers, makers, survivors).


Lifestyle is important for marketers because it helps them understand and appeal to the values and identity of consumers. Marketers can match their products or services to the lifestyle of consumers.


The external factors: culture, subculture, social class, reference groups, family, and situational factors




Culture is the set of beliefs, values, norms, and customs that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation. It is based on the history, The external factors: culture, subculture, social class, reference groups, family, and situational factors




Culture is the set of beliefs, values, norms, and customs that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from generation to generation. It is based on the history, geography, religion, language, education, and art of a society. For example, a consumer may belong to a culture that is individualistic or collectivistic.


Culture can be studied by various tools, such as Hofstede's cultural dimensions, Trompenaars' cultural dimensions, etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different types and levels of culture that influence their behavior. For example, Hofstede's cultural dimensions measure the degree of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, long-term/short-term orientation, and indulgence/restraint that consumers have in different countries.


Culture is important for marketers because it affects how consumers perceive and interpret their products or services. Marketers can adapt their products or services to the culture of consumers.


Subculture




Subculture is the subset of beliefs, values, norms, and customs that are shared by a smaller group of people within a larger culture. It is based on the demographic, Subculture




Subculture is the subset of beliefs, values, norms, and customs that are shared by a smaller group of people within a larger culture. It is based on the demographic, geographic, ethnic, religious, or lifestyle characteristics of a group. For example, a consumer may belong to a subculture that is Hispanic or vegan.


Subculture can be identified by various tools, such as census data, market research, etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different types and segments of subculture that influence their behavior. For example, census data can provide information about the size, location, income, education, etc. of different subcultures.


Subculture is important for marketers because it affects how consumers express and differentiate themselves from others. Marketers can customize their products or services to the subculture of consumers.


Social class




Social class is the division of society into groups based on their income, education, occupation, and status. It is based on the economic and social resources that consumers have or aspire to have. For example, a consumer may belong to a social class that is upper-class or lower-class.


Social class can be measured by various tools, such as income distribution, occupational prestige, educational attainment, etc. These tools suggest that consumers have different types and levels of social class that influence their behavior. For example, income distribution shows the percentage of income that different social classes earn in a society.


Social class is important for marketers because it affects how consumers spend and save their money. Marketers can position their products or services to the social class of consumers.


Reference groups




Reference groups are the groups of people that consumers interact with or refer to when making decisions. They are based on the influence and pressure that consumers receive from others. For example, a consumer may have reference groups that are friends or celebrities.


Reference groups can be classified into three types: membership, Communication




Communication is the process of informing and persuading consumers about a product or service. It is based on the selection and integration of various elements of the marketing mix, such as product, price, place, and promotion. For example, a marketer may communicate a product or service by using advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, etc.


Communication is important for marketers because it helps them convey and reinforce their value proposition to their customers. Marketers can use communication to create and sustain awareness, interest, desire, and action.


The ethical issues and challenges of consumer behavior




Consumer behavior is not only beneficial for marketers but also challenging and risky. It involves various ethical issues and dilemmas that marketers have to face and resolve. These issues and dilemmas concern the rights and welfare of consumers and society as a whole. For example, a marketer may have to deal with issues such as privacy, deception, man


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